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Sulfuric Acid

Freezing points, H2SO4


Ref. Gable, Betz and Maron, J.A.C.S., 72, 1445-1448 (1950)

Boiling points, H2SO4


Ref. Chemical Engineers Handbook, McGraw-Hill

 
Viscosity, H2SO4


Ref.
(1) Bright, et al. J. Soc. of Chem. Ind. 65, 385 (1946)
(2) I.C.T., Vol. 5, 11-13, McGraw-Hill Book Co., N.Y. (1929)
(3) Z. Physick, Chem. Neue Folge, 3, 52-64 (1955)

Heat of dilution, H2SO4 with H2O liquid


Ref. N.B.S., Selected Values of Chemical Thermodynamic Properties, Series 1, Table 14-7 (1952)

 
Enthalpy SO3-H2O system

Example:
When 66 B acid at 75F is diluted to 60 B with water at 60F, the resultant temperature of the 60 B acid is 233F, and 75 Btu per lb of 60 B acid [(-31)-(-106)=75] must be removed to cool it to 75F.

Basis: H-O for H2O (LIQ.) & H2SO4 (LIQ.) at 32F.

Ref.
(1) Ross, Chem. Eng. Prog. 48, 314 (1952)
(2) Miles et al, Trans. Faraday Soc. 40, 218 (1944)
(3) Morgen, Ind. Eng. Chem. 34, 571 (1942)
(4) Broughton, Chem. and Met. 52, No. 4, 123 (1945)

 
Unlined steel corrosion by sulfuric acid


Corrosion of Steel Flange Quality by Sulfuric Acid
50 B to 100% H2SO4 Temp. 80 to 150F

Flange Quality Specifications

Carbon - 0.25% Max.
Manganese - 0.30-0.60%
Phosphorus - 0.05% Max.
Sulfur - 0.05% Max.

 
Typical dilutions, H2SO4 with water both at 80F

' 98%
Initial strength Final strength Specific gravity
(60/60F)
Final temperature
(F)
Heat to be removed in cooling
(Btu per lb diluted acid)
Degrees Baum Percent Final temperature
80F 110F 140F
66 B 60 77.67 1.7059 244 79.1 64.5 51.8
55 69.65 1.6111 266 94.0 80.0 65.4
50 62.18 1.5263 268 101.3 85.3 70.0
45 55.07 1.4500 255 101.5 84.3 67.7
40 48.10 1.3810 234 97.9 81.0 61.2
35 41.27 1.3182 213 90.5 70.5 49.5
30 34.36 1.2609 190 81.2 59.2 37.5
98%66 93.19 1.8354 180 40 28.5 19.0
60 77.67 1.7059 310 112.5 97.5 84.0
55 69.65 1.6111 322 124.5 109.2 94.5
50 62.18 1.5263 287 (boils) 112.5 96.4 81.5

 
Physical property data

Specific gravity, boiling points, freezing points, sulfuric acid
Degrees
Baum
Specific
gravity
60/60F
Percent
sulfuric
acid H2SO4
Weight of 1
gal. in lbs. av.
Normal boiling
point F
Freezing
(melting) point
F
0 1.0000 0.00 8.337 212.0 32.0
1 1.0069 1.02 8.395 212.2 31.3
2 1.0140 2.08 8.454 212.5 30.5
3 1.0211 3.13 8.513 212.8 29.7
4 1.0284 4.21 8.574 213.1 28.9
5 1.0357 5.28 8.635 213.4 28.0
6 1.0432 6.37 8.697 213.7 27.0
7 1.0507 7.45 8.760 214.0 25.8
8 1.0584 8.55 8.824 214.3 24.6
9 1.0662 9.66 8.889 214.7 23.5
10 1.0741 10.77 8.955 215.1 22.3
11 1.0821 11.89 9.021 215.5 21.0
12 1.0902 13.01 9.089 215.9 19.4
13 1.0985 14.13 9.158 216.3 17.7
14 1.1069 15.25 9.228 216.8 16.3
15 1.1154 16.38 9.299 217.3 14.0
16 1.1240 17.53 9.371 217.8 12.0
17 1.1328 18.71 9.444 218.4 9.9
18 1.1417 19.89 9.518 219.0 7.5
19 1.1508 21.07 9.594 219.7 4.4
20 1.1600 22.25 9.671 220.4 +1.0
21 1.1694 23.43 9.750 221.1 -2.5
22 1.1789 24.61 9.828 221.8 -6.5
23 1.1885 25.81 9.909 222.5 -11.1
24 1.1983 27.03 9.90 223.3 -16.0
25 1.2083 28.28 10.074 224.2 -21.9
26 1.2185 29.53 10.159 225.2 -28.0
27 1.2288 30.79 10.246 226.3 -35.6
28 1.2393 32.05 10.332 227.4 -44.3
29 1.2500 33.33 10.421 228.6 -55.3
30 1.2609 34.63 10.512 230.0 -69.5
31 1.2719 35.93 10.604 231.6 -78.7
32 1.2832 37.26 10.698 233.2 -75.2
33 1.2946 38.58 10.793 234.8 -72.0
34 1.3063 39.92 10.891 236.5 -69.3
35 1.3182 41.27 10.990 238.3 -66.5
36 1.3303 42.63 11.091 240.3 -44.5
37 1.3426 43.99 11.193 242.4 -57.0
38 1.3551 45.35 11.297 244.7 -50.6
39 1.3679 46.72 11.404 247.4 -44.0
40 1.3810 48.10 11.513 250.1 -38.2
41 1.3942 49.47 11.623 253.0 -33.0
42 1.4078 50.87 11.737 256.2 -28.6
43 1.4216 52.26 11.852 259.6 -25.5
44 1.4356 53.66 11.969 263.4 -22.8
45 1.4500 55.07 12.089 267.4 -20.9
46 1.4646 56.48 12.210 271.6 -19.3
47 1.4796 57.90 12.335 276.4 -19.1
48 1.4948 59.32 12.462 281.2 -19.8
49 1.5104 60.75 12.592 286.5 -22.0
50 1.5263 62.18 12.725 292.0 -25.4
51 1.5426 63.66 12.861 298.0 -29.6
52 1.5591 65.13 12.998 304.0 -34.2
53 1.5761 66.63 13.140 311.0 -36.0
54 1.5934 68.13 13.284 318.5 -39.5
55 1.6111 69.65 13.432 326.5 -45.0
56 1.6292 71.17 13.583 335.0 -40.8
57 1.6477 72.75 13.737 345.3 -39.4
58 1.6667 74.36 13.895 355.5 -28.4
59 1.6860 75.99 14.056 367.4 -9.0
60 1.7059 77.67 14.222 379.5 +11.5
61 1.7262 79.43 14.391 393.0 29.3
62 1.7470 81.30 14.565 407.5 39.5
63 1.7683 83.34 14.742 425.8 45.6
64 1.7901 85.66 14.924 447.2 44.8
64 1/4 1.7957 86.33 14.971 453.5 42.9
64 1/2 1.8012 87.04 15.017 460.5 40.0
64 3/4 1.8068 87.81 15.063 468.3 36.0
65 1.8125 88.65 15.111 477 31.2
65 1/4 1.8182 89.55 15.158 486 24.5
65 1/2 1.8239 90.60 15.206 498 15.0
65 3/4 1.8297 91.80 15.254 515 +2.5
66 1.8354 93.19 15.302 535 -21.0
  1.8373 93.77 15.318 545 -30.8
  1.8381 94.00 15.324 548 -28.0
  1.8407 95.00 15.346 566 -8.0
  1.8427 96.00 15.363 586 +7.0
  1.8437 97.00 15.371 606 19.5
  1.8437 98.00 15.371 621 30.0
  1.8424 99.00 15.360 590 41.0
  1.8391 100.00 15.333 526 51.7
Baum = 145 - (145/sp.gr.)

Note: Data shown in tables compiled from various sources including:
  • Manufacturing Chemists Association, Manual Sheets T-7 (1904) and T-7A (1938).
  • Gable, Betz and Maron, J.A.C.S., 72, 1445-1448 (1950).
  • Engineering Department, General Chemical Division, Allied Chemical Corporation.
Allowance for Temperature
At 10 B, 0.029 B or 0.00023 sp.gr. = 1F
At 20 B, 0.036 B or 0.00034 sp.gr. = 1F
At 30 B, 0.035 B or 0.00039 sp.gr. = 1F
At 40 B, 0.031 B or 0.00041 sp.gr. = 1F
At 50 B, 0.028 B or 0.00045 sp.gr. = 1F
At 60 B, 0.026 B or 0.00053 sp.gr. = 1F
At 66 B, 0.0235

B or 0.00054 sp.gr. = 1F

Note: Since sulfuric acid above 93% may have same specific gravity at different concentrations, a direct analysis of acid strength is recommended.

At 94% 0.00054 sp.gr. = 1F
At 96% 0.00053 sp.gr. = 1F
At 97.5% 0.00052 sp.gr. = 1F
At 100% 0.00052 sp.gr. = 1F


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