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BLEACHING AGENTS

Chlorine (Cl2) - PVDF and PTFE can be used up to 200°F and 300°F, respectively, however The Chlorine Institute, Inc. recommends carbon steel.

Dry Chlorine Service - PVDF and PTFE can be used up to 200°F and 300°F, respectively, however The Chlorine Institute, Inc. recommends carbon steel.

Chlorine Water - Liners of PTFE, PVDF and PP can be used to pipe saturated chlorine water. However, if free chlorine gas is present, only PVDF and PTFE are usually recommended.

Chlorine Dioxide(ClO2) - Liners of PVDF and PTFE are appropriate for ClO2. If this line will also be used for sodium hydroxide, PVDF should not be used.

Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) - NaOCl can be successfully handled with PTFE, PVDF and PP under normal conditions. Temperature upsets can cause decomposition to free chlorine gas which would require PTFE or PVDF. If NaOH is used and the pH could exceed 11, PVDF should not be used.

Bromine (Br2) - A 3% saturated bromine water solution can be handled with pipe lined with PTFE, PVDF and PP, while only PTFE and PVDF linings are suitable for liquid bromine.

Commercial bleaching agents are among the most commonly handled substances in a variety of industries, most notably paper and chemical pulp, textiles and food. Chlorine, in both gaseous and liquid form, is perhaps the most important, but chlorine compounds are also widely used. In some processes, bromine is becoming popular as a substitute for chlorine.

All of these chemicals and their compounds share, to a certain degree, two characteristics: they are corrosive and toxic. Under certain conditions, some are explosive. They are among the most difficult to handle and work with.

All of the bleaching agents listed exhibit widely varying characteristics, depending on such things as pressure and temperature, moisture content, and whether they are in a gaseous or liquid phase. All of these characteristics are interrelated to some extent. Chlorine, for example, readily changes state under certain changes in temperature, pressure or both; many piping materials will handle one form of chlorine but not the other. The addition of even a few ppm of water to dry chlorine gas increases its ability to corrode considerably, and thereby eliminates a number of popular materials from consideration.



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